VirD: Functional Membrane Proteins

Our Virion Display (VirD™) microarrays use a patented system to synthesize important drug targets with  proper folding and function. Our first version contains 160 non-odorant GPCRs and is useful for drug development and functional assays as reported in Nature Communications.

VirD: Functional Membrane Proteins

Our Virion Display (VirD™) microarrays use a patented system to synthesize important drug targets with  proper folding and function. Our first version contains 160 non-odorant GPCRs and is useful for drug development and functional assays as reported in Nature Communications.

Folded, embedded, and functional membrane proteins.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in a wide variety of physiological processes, and mutations in GPCRs are implicated in many diseases. GPCR receptors must be embedded in a cell membrane to fold correctly and are difficult to express in traditional recombinant expression systems. The most common method used to study GPCRs is to overexpress them in transfected mammalian cell lines. However, the transfected cells also contain endogenous receptors, making it a challenge to interpret experimental results.

Our new VirD™ viral-based expression technology expresses individual GPCR proteins embedded in a cell membrane. Purified virions displaying correctly-folded GPCRs are printed onto glass to create VirD arrays. This method eliminates the problem of endogenous receptor competition when using traditional methods, and yields much cleaner data.

VirD™ technical details.

To create the VirD™ array, 160 human G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) open reading frames (ORFs) were modified to remove their stop codons and subcloned into the UL27 locus of the herpes simplex (HSV-1) virus genome with a C-terminal v5 tag as reported in Nature Communications.  These individually engineered viron clones are then used to infect human cells. Native human protein assembly machinery correctly folds the proteins and shuttles them to the viral membrane.  Membrane-protein bearing VirD™ virions are concentrated from culture supernatants and their membrane-protein expression confirmed via anti-V5 immunoblots.

Purified virions were then printed on SuperEpoxy glass slides to create the final GPCR-VirD™ arrays. The quality of printed VirD-GPCR arrays is confirmed via staining for HSV-1 Glycoprotein D (gD) via anti-gD antibody and comparing those as compared with bovine serum albumin negative controls (BSA).

VirD™ Content.

VirD™ GPCR arrays can be purchased directly or provided as a complete analysis service.

Download VirD™ v1.0 GPCR Array Content List

160 GPCRs are profiled by VirD™ v1.0 membrane protein array.

ACKR1 • ACKR2 • ACKR3 • ACKR3 • ACKR4 • ADCYAP1R1 • ADGRE1 • ADGRE1 • ADGRE3 • ADORA1 • ADORA2A • ADORA2B • ADRA1A • ADRA2A • ADRB2 • AGTR1 • AGTR1 • BDKRB1 • BDKRB2 • BDKRB2 • C3AR1 • C5AR1 • CCR1 • CCR5 • CCR6 • CCR7 • CCR8 • CCR9 • CCRL2 • CHRM1 • CHRM2 • CHRM3 • CHRM4 • CNR1 • CNR2 • CNR2 • CX3CR1 • CXCR1 • CXCR1 • CXCR2 • CXCR4 • CXCR6 • CYSLTR1 • CYSLTR1 • CYSLTR1 • DRD2 • EDNRB • F2R • F2RL1 • F2RL1 • F2RL1 • F2RL2 • F2RL2 • F2RL2 • FCER1A • FPR2 • GALR2 • GLP2R • GNRHR • GNRHR • GPR1 • GPR110 • GPR114 • GPR119 • GPR12 • GPR135 • GPR137 • GPR141 • GPR141 • GPR141 • GPR143 • GPR15 • GPR151 • GPR158 • GPR160 • GPR17 • GPR171 • GPR171 • GPR18 • GPR19 • GPR22 • GPR25 • GPR3 • GPR31 • GPR32 • GPR39 • GPR55 • GPR56 • GPR62 • GPR63 • GPR65 • GPR75 • GPR82 • GPR84 • GPR85 • GPR97 • GPRC5A • GPRC5A • GPRC5C • GPRC5D • GRM2 • GRPR • HCAR3 • HCAR3 • HCRTR2 • HRH1 • HTR1A • HTR1D • HTR1E • HTR1E • HTR1F • HTR2B • HTR7 • K082 • K082 • K082 • K082 • K082 • K082 • K082 • LPAR1 • LPAR2 • LPAR3 • LPAR5 • LPAR6 • LTB4R • MAS1 • MC5R • MRGPRF • NMUR2 • NPBWR1 • NPFFR2 • NPFFR2 • NPY1R • NPY6R • P2RY1 • P2RY10 • P2RY10 • P2RY12 • P2RY13 • PRLHR • PTAFR • PTGER2 • PTGER4 • PTGFR • RXFP3 • S1PR5 • SCTR • SSTR1 • SSTR2 • SUCNR1 • TAAR1 • TAAR1 • TAAR2 • TAAR5 • TAAR6 • TAAR8 • TRHR • VIPR2 • XCR1

VirD™ service details & data deliverables.

A simple antibody interaction VirD™ service involves drug candidate antibodies diluted and reacted with individual microarrays with BSA blocking. After incubation, samples are stained for one or two desired fluorescent secondary detection antibodies (ie IgG1). Arrays are scanned and raw TIF images are created using Molecular Devices Genepix microarray scanners. Spots are then aligned to CDI library (.gal) files, and spot readings are output as raw Genepix results (.gpr) files. These raw results are then delivered both as .gpr files and combined output data tables.

VirD™ service sample requirements.

Antibody isolates: At least 3μg per sample (conc. >0.1mg / mL).

Protein / peptide / small molecule: At least 3μg per sample.

DNA / RNA: At least 300μL per sample (conc. >2μM).

Other fluids: Please contact us.

Note: Human serum or plasma often contains anti-HSV-1 antibodies making VirD™ inappropriate for clinical studies.

Sample shipping & sample return.

We will include shipping details in your quote – you must cover the cost of shipping samples to CDI. Typically, after you receive your report, CDI keeps the remaining samples for two months and then disposes of them. When shipping to us, please let us know if you want the remaining samples returned after the study is complete. We will charge for return shipping.

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